The Fundamentals of Voltage Transformers
A vast majority of our personal and professional lives are spent using electricity. This electricity comes from massive electrical transformers through a national grid of pylons and cables. These transformers put out a high amount of voltage that must be converted into lower voltages before they can be used to power our everyday appliances and other electronic equipment.
This power conversion is all made possible due to the voltage transformer.
What is a Voltage Transformer?
A voltage transformer is a passive electrical device that converts or “transforms” electrical energy from one value to another. These transformers can increase or decrease the voltage and current levels by using a magnetic circuit to link two or more electrical circuits.
How Does a Voltage Transformer Work?
Voltage transformers convert electrical energy through a pretty simple process.
In a single-phase transformer, there are two electrical coils of wire. The first wide is called the “Primary Winding.” This is the side that takes power. The second side or “Secondary Winding” receives this power, converts it, and delivers it to the appliance that needs it.
The two coils are wrapped on opposite sides of the transformer core, electrically isolated from one another. Magnetically, the coils are linked because the core itself is magnetic and this allows the electricity to be transferred between the coils.
The primary winding is connected to the input voltage and it converts the power received into a magnetic field. The secondary winding converts the alternating magnetic field back into electricity and produces the required voltage for the appliance being powered.
So how does the voltage level become converted?
The difference in voltage is achieved by adjusting the number of coil turns in the primary winding in comparison with the secondary winding. This is called the “turns ratio.” The turns ratio dictates the amount of voltage that is put out by the secondary winding.
In the end, the turns ratio (TR) = voltage ratio.
For example, a 4:2 TR means that 4 volts go in and 2 volts come out.
Simply put, a voltage transformer converts electricity into a magnetic field and back through a series of turns in the first coil. The coil turns needed to convert this power will dictate the voltage being put out in the end.
What is the Importance of a Voltage Transformer?
You know what voltage transformers are, what they do, and even how they work – but the last thing that we need to stress is how important these transformers are.
Voltage transformers make it possible for businesses and homes to take some of the incredibly high levels of power coming in from the power grid and use it to safely operate smaller electrical devices such as microwaves and other appliances.
Without these transformers, these appliances would receive too much electricity at one time. This can overwhelm the circuits and dangerously overheat delicate wiring and other components.
Voltage transformers give you the power that you need safely and effectively so that you can use electrical equipment of all sizes for personal and practical reasons.